HF from an apartment

After putting most of my radios on consignment - and eventually selling them - I was able to purchase a Kenwood TS-590SG to be used as my "base" HF unit. I also purchased a Kenwood TS-480SAT, Comet SAA-500 Mark II antenna analyzer, Hustler MO-3 (54") and MO-4 (22") mobile whips, 400 watt resonators for 80-10 meters, a VP-1 tri-band adapter, and a D-322 mount.

My first attempt at a usable antenna in my apartment was the Hustler antenna on the D-322 mount on a modified Sony VCT-R640 tripod (modified = I removed the camera mount) with a counterpoise. Failure.

Second attempt was to ground the antenna base. I was able to match the antenna. Noise. When I used the MO-3 without a resonator for 6 meters at 5 watts, the mic went hot. RF burn. Fail.

Third attempt was to ground the TS-590SG.  Because the ground is attached to building steel, I was in a Faraday cage, effectively nulling my signal. Fail.

Fourth attempt was to purchase a Chameleon F-Loop antenna with the 80 meter add on. Success, save for the standard RFI in an urban area (bzzzt....bzzzt...bzzzt). I'll review the F-Loop later with instructions to make it work with the Kenwoods (or any modern HF transceiver with an internal tuner).

The TS-480SAT will be used for my mobile and field work. I'm looking forward to experimenting with the verticals and the F-Loop outside. I've also ordered HF verticals from GAM (WeatherFax/DSC) and Metz (General Coverage). 

Of course I'll post the results.


Callsign games

When I took the Extra exam, as with all other upgrades, I had the choice of retaining my current callsign or getting a new systematic callsign. I choose to keep KD0UDM. If I chose a new systematic call sign, I'd have to consider the current line up of the next block of call signs in Group A:

AD0SA-Z except AD0SB and AD0SC (vanity calls)
AD0TA-Z except AD0TD and AD0TY (vanity calls)
AD0UA-Z except AD0UG (vanity call)
AD0VA-Z except AD0VK and AD0VW (vanity calls)
AD0WA-Z except AD0WB and AD0WX (vanity calls)

There won't be a problem with Group A calls in Region 10 for some time since there is a total of 4,215 callsigns left. This is not the case in Region 4, where they ran out of Group A calls on 12/8/12 with AK4ZZ and now up it's to KW4QB in Group B as of this date.

I could always try for a Vanity callsign and fight for a 2x1 or 1x2 callsign. I don't think it's worth it - I could end up lousy callsign like W0OF or WO0F. Forget it. There's also the possibility of using my initials and have operators across the UK fall out of their chairs laughing when they hear me calling


And no, I don't want AD0SA (SturmAbteilung), AB0SD (SicherheitsDienst), AB0SX (see KB0NK, ante), AB0SV (the first two initials of an ex-girlfriend). Call me superstitious.

I'll wait. 

Standard GX-5850T

I was lucky enough to buy a new Standard GX-5850T off eBay some time ago. It's an 896-927 Mhz conventional and trunked mobile, perfect for my 902 Mhz (33 cm band) project. The trouble is that I cannot find a legitimate copy of the programming software. I was bounced around between the various manufacturers, and I still have to navigate my way through the last lead.

If anyone has a legitimate copy of the Standard GX-5850T software, you can leave a comment or email me at kd0udm at arrl.net.

Thanks and 73s. :-)

What's next?

It's time to review where I'm going in Amateur Radio. There has to be some direction to all this. Here's my attempt to get things in perspective.

1. Amateur Extra license upgrade: Study, study, study. Get it before the end of the year (hah!). I once knew the math and not the code, now I need to brush up on the math now that there is no code. I'll buy an HF rig as a present to myself when I pass the exam.

2.  Radiotelegraph license: After I get the Amateur Extra license, study CW until I can copy and send 25 words per minute, cancel my outdated General Radiotelephone License with Ship Radar Endorsement, and take the somewhat more outdated Radiotelegraph exam. Maybe even go for the Ship Radar endorsement again as well. At least it will confer all the privileges of the Radiotelephone License.

3. EMWIN data transmission project: Get a Kantronics KPC-1200+, a KPC-3+, and configure EMWIN retransmission software to transmit weather data. Let's see how far it will go reliably on 300 and 1200 baud. D-Star and C4FM? feh. Costs too much and its for the most part proprietary.

4. 902 Mhz (33 cm band) project: I have one Motorola GTX mobile and one Standard GX-5850T, with software being almost impossible to find. Maybe some one will release an answer to the now discontinued Alinco DJ-29T.

Radiotelegraph License Public Notice

DA 13-798

Released: April 19, 2013


In the Report and Order in WT Docket No. 10-177, the Commission amended the rules concerning radiotelegraph operator licenses, effective May 20, 2013. The Commission consolidated First Class Radiotelegraph Operator’s Certificates (T1) and Second Class Radiotelegraph Operator’s Certificates (T2) into a new license class, the Radiotelegraph Operator License (T). This change takes effect with respect to existing licenses upon renewal – that is, T1s and T2s renewed on or after May 20, 2013 will be renewed as Ts, but existing T1s and T2s will retain their current license class for the duration of the current license term. The Commission also consolidated Third Class Radiotelegraph Operator’s Certificates (T3) with Marine Radio Operator Permits (MP) – T3s renewed on or after May 20, 2013 will be renewed as MPs, but existing T3s will retain their current license class for the duration of the current license term. Also, no applications for new T1s, T2s, or T3s will be accepted as of May 20, 2013.

In addition, the Commission extended the license term of radiotelegraph operator licenses to the lifetime of the holder. For existing licenses, this change also takes effect upon renewal. T1, T2, and T3 holders must renew their licenses as set forth above in order to obtain lifetime status. 

For technical assistance in renewing a license, please contact the ULS Technical Support Hotline at (877) 480-3201, option 2, (717) 338-2888, or (717) 338-2824 (TTY). The ULS Technical Support Hotline is available Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. ET. There are no weekend hours, and the hotline is closed on all Federal holidays. To provide quality service and ensure security, all telephone calls are recorded.


PK-96 U3 replacement for date and time

Some time ago, I called Timewave support. Because Dallas Semiconductor no longer manufactures the DS1216D, the lithium battery unit for PK-96 date and time retention, I inquired about a replacement. There was none. Deciding to try to find a replacement on my own. I looked at a specs. It appeared the DS1248Y-70+ would work, the claim being it's a "drop-in" replacement. I ordered one unit from Avnet for about $42. It didn't work, the TNC wouldn't respond. Replacing the replacement IC with the original chip, the TNC worked. Some "drop-in" replacement. I also bought a new serial cable, in case my existing stock of cables were not functioning as planned.


I had written to Kantronics last year about the date and time retention capabilities of their products:
Does the KPC-3+, KPC-9612+ and the KWN-1200+ retain date and time information (logging, stations heard) out of the box, unlike the Timewave PK-96/100, which requires a time chip upgrade?

And their response:
The KPC-9612 Plus, and the commercial version KWM-9612 Plus, have a real-time clock installed by default.

The KPC-3 Plus, and its commercial version KWM-1200 Plus, do not include the real-time clock chip. It is an option in these units. An IC socket is provided on the circuit board where that IC can be easily installed.

Sounds good to me. Time to ditch Timewave.

Bridgecom Systems: an alternative to BaofengWouxun

I ran across Bridgecom Systems, who have an interesting catalog of radios, both as an OEM and a distributor of Maxon and Tecnet. Tenet data radios are instantly adaptable to Amateur Radio, if you look into the Maxon line of data radios, you will eventually find they, too are useful for EMWIN and amateur radio RF data applications. They are reasonably priced, too.

There's an 1.25 meter mobile radio to be released soon:

BCM 222-225 Mhz mobile radio Bridgecom manufactures amateur band capable repeaters for under $1000:

BCR Repeater

UHF Citizens Band: a modest proposal

Superseded. Go here.

Because the purpose of the Citizens Radio Service was supposed to be short range communications and line of sight communication in the UHF spectrum is sufficient, it is obvious the propagation characteristics of the 10 meter band is unsuitable for that purpose. Local communications do not need atmospheric propagation, nor do users require radio frequency amplifiers which creates RF pollution and excessive power levels that far exceed allowable MPE limits. Then again, having a place - 11 meters - where those who cannot take an exam will keep the mass of lowest common denominator culture away from Amateur Radio.

I propose the following - that Part 95 of Chapter 1 of Title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations are amended as follows:

1. The Citizens Band Radio Service is to defined as a private, two-way, short-distance voice communications service in the Ultra High Frequency band for personal or business activities of the general public.
2. The General Mobile Radio Service is abolished. All current licensees may operate until the expiration date of their license. No new GMRS radios may be sold or placed into operation.
3. The Family Radio Service is abolished. All persons currently operating with existing equipment may do so, however, no new FRS radios may be sold or placed into operation.
4. The Citizen's Band Radio Service in the 11 meter band is abolished. No operation may take place in that band. No new 11 meter radios may be sold or placed into operation.
5. The frequencies authorized are available on a shared basis only and will not be assigned for the exclusive use of any entity.
6. The highest point of any antenna must not be more than 6.1 meters (20 feet) above the ground or above the building or tree on which it is mounted.
7. The maximum allowable transmitter power shall be no more than 2 watts effective radiated power.
8. Repeater operation is prohibited.
9. Tone coded, digital coded squelch, and paging systems may be used.
10. Frequencies allowed for use are 462.5500 to 462.7250 and 467.5500 to 467.7250 in 12.5 Khz steps.

C4FM projects

There are three projects that I thought of with Yaesu's C4FM. The first is using the data channel to transmit the EMWIN data feed from the internet, the second to use the WIRES-X news feature to deposit weather information, the third to use an FT1DR as a WIRES-X digital node.

The first experiment failed. The FT1DR can only transmit GPS, Waypoint and firmware data with the USB connector.

The second experiment failed. The news feature in the WIRES-X software allows for very limited text and images of resolutions of <= 320x240 and a size of <= 40 Kbytes. The files used in the news feature are not in plain text, they are in a format readable only by the software.

The third experiment will require, for the FT1DR, a CT-170 data cable (USB serial data input and output and ground) and CT-44 audio connector (packet data); for the HRI-200 WIRES-X gateway a CT-167 cable to wire to both the CT-170 and CT-44.

The FTM-400 has a 10 pin (DIN) data port which will allow for connecting the SCU-20 (USB) or CT-165 (RS-232C) to the computer to use the C4FM data channel. The FTM-400 can use the data port for GPS, Packet, or Waypoint. Note the mobile serial port has direct packet capability whereas the HT does not. The FT1DR is quite limited in function and the mobile can be used as a digital node for data transmission and WIRES-X. I doubt the announced FT2DR will be any different from the FT1DR except for the touch screen.

Some observations:
- When operating the FTM-400 as a WIRES-X digital node, when the TXout Gain in File-->Settings-->Property-->HRI-200setup is set for TX96, the transmit audio on the local node (that is, the distant station's audio) is much clearer.
- The FT1DR is an intermod magnet.
- On an FT1DR in DN mode with a power output of 5 watts and a trunk mounted quarter wave antenna, you can have a QSO on a Fusion 70 cm repeater through intermod alley in Minneapolis (Hennepin Avenue between Washington Avenue and South 9th Street), with only a few instances of audio distortion.
- The Yaesu hand held mic doesn't have much of an audio frequency range.


I'm operating a Wires-X node (11129). I already had a QSO with Bert F5NTS (on 144.480 Mhz here with a Kenwood TH-K20, on 70 cm there with a Baofeng). Operating the node is easy:

1. Tune the radio to 144.970 Mhz.
2. Look up an active Node ID or a Room ID
3. Transmit DTMF #nnnnn where # is the pound sign and nnnnn is the 5 digit node or room ID (unsuccessful connections will be noted by 4 beeps).
4. If the connection is successful, you will hear my call sign in morse.
5. To disconnect from a remote node, transmit DTMF * (successful disconnect will be acknowledged by 4 beeps).
6. Transmission will time out at 3 minutes.

That's if the node is analog. I'm operating it now in digital mode:

1. Tune the radio to 144.970 Mhz.
2. Press the Dx key for at least 2 seconds to enable the radio to find the node.
3. When the radio is connected to the node, either:
a. download the node and room list, or
b. direct entry the remote node or room you want to connect to.
4. To disconnect from the remote node, press the * key for at least 2 seconds.

Here's the information:

Radio: Kenwood TM-271 with a packet cable
Frequency: 144.97 Mhz
Tone: None
Antenna: Metz 2 meter vertical
VOIP gateway: Wires-X
Node number: 11129
Location: Loring Park, Minneapolis

902 Mhz band plan and experimental frequencies

Due to the lack of interest (and amateur rigs by the manufacturers) the 33cm band is wide open, if you don't count interference or non-interference from ITS, Part 15 and the ISM radio services. We will dispense with any part of the band plan that does not address spectrum for experimental purposes, data transmission or narrowband FM (i.e. repurposed Motorola GTX and Kenwood units). This is what it looks like here in Minnesota.

902.3125–902.4875 Narrowband FM/DV repeater inputs (25 Khz spacing)
902.500 Simplex (15Khz)
902.8500-902.9750 Narrowband repeater inputs (25 Khz spacing)
902.9875 Narrowband SNP repeater input
903.425-906.975 Digital
916.025-918.975 Digital
927.3125–927.4875 Narrowband repeater outputs (25 KHz spacing)
927.600 Alternate FM Simplex (15 Khz wide channel)
927.700 Alternate FM Simplex (15 Khz wide channel)
927.800 Alternate FM Simplex (15 Khz wide channel)
927.8500-927.9750 Narrowband repeater outputs (25 Khz spacing)
927.9875 Narrowband SNP repeater output

904.00-909.750 and 919.000-928.000 are designated for Intelligent Transportation Systems. They are the primary users of this part of the spectrum and the Amateur Radio Service cannot cause harmful interference. Part 97.303(n)(1)(i-iii) states, that in the 33cm band, Amateur stations must not cause harmful interference to, and must accept interference from, stations authorized by the United States Government; the FCC in the Location and Monitoring Service; and other nations in the fixed service.

Researching 902-928 Mhz on the FCC ULS website, these are the active ITS frequencies in use within 50 miles of a point just south of downtown Minneapolis. They include users like the railroads, spectrum speculators and an airport:

901.95-902.00 (not in affected sub band)
902.25 (not in affected sub band)
903.00 (50K0N0N emission within 2 km of MSP Airport - 25 khz from SNP repeater input)
903.75 (within digital sub band)
904.00-909.75 (within the digital sub band to 906.975)
910.00 (not in affected sub band)
911.50 (not in affected sub band)
913.00 (not in affected sub band)
913.10 (not in affected sub band)
913.75 (not in affected sub band)
915.00 (not in affected sub band)
917.00 (within the digital sub band 916.025-918.975)
917.75 (within the digital sub band 916.025-918.975)
918.50 (within the digital sub band 916.025-918.975)
918.75 (within the digital sub band 916.025-918.975)
921.00 (not in affected sub band)
921.75-927.25 (not in affected sub band)
927.25-927.50 (within Wisconsin simplex sub band)
927.75-928.00 (within simplex and narrow band repeater output sub bands)

You cannot transmit on the SNP frequency within 2 km of MSP International. Generally, you have to be careful about which frequencies you can use and where you can use them. Using FCC ULS search, determine if your signal would radiate on a  frequency and within a bandwidth is in use by a licensed service.

(BTW, I need to update this post with the ITS bandwidth information - that will further restrict Amateur Service use of the band.)

Answer: Yaesu C4FM. Now what was the Question?

Drag me kicking and screaming into the post-AX.25 world so I can be on the cutting edge for once in Amateur Radio. You know the justifications by heart: Let's give Icom D-Star some competition. Don't get suckered into the inexpensive, mass produced Chinese radio that plays "The East is Red" when it's powered up. If we don't buy stuff from the manufacturers they'll just ride into the sunset like Drake, Swan, Hallicrafters.  So I figured, yeah, what the hell, there's repeaters being installed, and I need a good dual band rig anyway. Here's my $700.

There are now 3 clubs with Fusion repeaters, received with the blessings of Yaesu as part of a program to catch up to Icom's D-Star - which is already so entrenched that I don't see how Yaesu's (albeit allegedly superior) proprietary system will ever catch up. There's DMR and P25, and these two open-standard modes may supplant both C4FM and D-Star anyway, since they're open. Amateurs (like me) just don't really want to spend all that cash for proprietary systems and - let's be honest here - don't want to be beta testers and pay for the privilege.

Don't get me wrong, the Yaesu FTM-400 is a good unit (though with some bugs - i.e. the blanking of audio when in mixed mode and listening to analog FM, no configuration software like Kenwood) and the ever-present intermod in downtown Minneapolis. I use a duplexer and two quarter wave trunk mount antennas, one for 2 meters and one for 70 cm. Don't even think of using a gain-type dual band antenna. The intermod will be fierce, remedied by use of tone coded squelch.

I have had one - that's right - ONE QSO with a Ham who bought a FT-1DR HT. The digital mode worked - watch out, though, if some packets drop. It's not a pleasant experience. As for repeaters, there are three, all on 70cm:  444.100, 444.300, 444.525 Mhz.

I'll keep the rig for now. If the lack of interest and participation persists in the Metro, I'll just sell the unit to a ham lives in an area with a more active C4FM base.

Constitutional problems with HR 4969

The ARRL is telling us to support
HR 4969 ("Amateur Radio Parity Act of 2014") HR 1301 ("Amateur Radio Parity Act of 2015") that would forcibly compel PRB-1 (47 CFR 97.15(b) upon "all types of land-use regulation, including deed restrictions and restrictive covenants":

Except as otherwise provided herein, a station antenna structure may be erected at heights and dimensions sufficient to accommodate amateur service communications. (State and local regulation of a station antenna structure must not preclude amateur service communications. Rather, it must reasonably accommodate such communications and must constitute the minimum practicable regulation to accomplish the state or local authority's legitimate purpose.

Not so fast. The ARRL, Congress and the FCC faces constitutional obstacles before they can impose their will upon private contracts.

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
(United States Constitution, Amendment 12)

“No State shall … pass any … Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts … “
(United States Constitution, Article I, Section 10)

According to the ARRL website, there is an exemption for Digital Broadcasting Service and terrestrial television antennas already in law:

Private land use regulation of Amateur antennas is not preempted by the Telecommunications Act of 1996, but most private land use regulation of DBS dishes and TV antennas is. Congress was interested in promoting competition (and thus lowering costs and improving service) in video delivery services.

Is the exemption for DBS and TV antennas itself unconstitutional? Does it not also impair the the contract obligations between two private parties? Answer: yes it does. The proposed legislation would add another unconstitutional provision to the current law. This calls into question the legitimacy of the ARRL's request - to forcibly compel a private party, by government action, to abrogate a private contractual agreement. It is one thing to restriction government action - it is another to restrict lawful private contracts.

Don't want to live under the rules of a homeowners association? Don't buy property or move into a house under their control. Don't commend government to violate or ignore the constitution or the law for your self-interest.

We already have enough of that.

Update: introduction of HR 1301, restate PRB-1.

Repeater on 224.24 Mhz

This repeater has been decommissioned.

My repeater near downtown Minneapolis for the purpose of testing a 222 Mhz FM repeater of 5 watts for propagation analysis is now in its testing stage. The Alinco units have an inherently low level of illumination (as compared to Kenwood and Yaesu HTs) and appear be susceptible to noise - the required squelch control setting for quieting appears higher than what it should be. This may be due to local RF noise.

Update: The local interference is caused by the car itself. I moved the repeater 100 kHz down to 223.90 Mhz. I need to find another frequency pair.

Callsign: KD0UDM
Output: 224.24 Mhz
Input: 222.64 Mhz carrier
Power: 5 W
Emission: 16K0F3E 16K0F2D
Antenna (rx): HT
Antenna (tx): HT
Antenna height: 100 feet
Antenna gain: 0 dbi
Antenna polarization: vertical
Antenna directivity: omnidirectional offset to 270 degrees azimuth
Calculated line of sight: 16 miles
Controller: Reed Electronics u-Repeater
Transmitter: Alinco DJ-V27
Receiver: Yaesu FT-60R
Coordination: Minnesota Repeater Council

222 Mhz band plan overhaul

It's probably been some years since the MRC band plans were decided - there is still a reference to Novice privileges there. The current MRC band plan is:

222.00-222.25 Weak Signal: EME, CW, SSB
222.05-222.06 Beacons
222.10-222.15 Novice weak signal
222.15-222.25 Various weak signal
222.26-223.38 FM Repeater Inputs
223.40-223.85 FM Voice Simplex and Packet
223.40 1200 Baud Packet
223.42 1200 Baud Packet
223.44 1200 Baud Packet
223.46 1200 Baud Packet
223.47 9600 Baud Packet trunk
223.48 1200 Baud Packet
223.50 FM Voice Simplex - National Calling Frequency
223.52-223.84 FM Voice Simplex
223.55 9600 Baud Packet trunk, if used 223.54 and 223.56 are not useable
223.86-224.98 FM Repeater Outputs

Proposal 1: Delete the references to "Novice weak signal" as obsolete and "Various weak signal" to be combined in the sub-band.
Proposal 2: Delete packet channels assigned on the basis of bandwidth. Redesignate them pursuant to the ARRL band plan.
Proposal 3: Add "experimental" to the sub-band 223.40-223.85.

The new band plan would look like this:

222.00-222.25 Weak Signal: EME, CW, SSB
222.05-222.06 Beacons
222.10 SSB and CW calling frequency
222.26-223.38 FM Repeater Inputs
223.40-223.85 FM Voice Simplex, Data, Experimental
223.50 FM Voice calling frequency
223.86-224.98 FM Repeater Outputs


222.00-222.25 Weak Signal: EME, CW, SSB
222.05-222.06 Beacons
222.10 SSB and CW calling frequency
222.26-223.38 FM Repeater Inputs
223.40-223.48 Data, Experimental
223.50 FM Voice calling frequency
223.52-223.85 FM Voice Simplex, ExperimentaL
223.86-224.98 FM Repeater Outputs

This will simplify the band plan and open up 1.25 meters for experimentation and development.

Non-ionizing radiation: what next?

Now that I've run my 2 meter (145.23) and 70 centimeter (442.70) repeaters for non-scientific propagation analysis, what next?

1. Construct a low power repeater at 224 Mhz for propagation analysis;
2. Build the VOX kit for the ID-O-Matic 2 repeater controller;
3. Construct and test an EMWIN data transmitter;
4. Evaluate the propagation of EMWIN data transmission at various frequencies;
5. Construct a crossband relay for 1.25m to 2m.
6. Study and pass the Amateur Extra exam;
7. Study code to 25 wpm;
8. Study for and pass the Commercial Radiotelegraph exam.

Trouble with 145.23 repeater

This repeater has been decommissioned.

I was using two FT-60Rs for the receiver and transmitter (2 watts) when I realized the transmit FT-60R was getting overheated enough to either go into thermal shutdown or blow up completely. Yaesu has probably the best real-world selectivity of  HTs on the market. I have yet to have a problem with them along Intermod Alley (Hennepin Avenue from South 10th St. to Washington Avenue), however, using the FT-60R for a low power repeater is just not feasible. I have two FT-277Rs that I'm planning to use for a 70cm repeater. The 277Rs are larger and built like tanks, so they may be able to withstand the heat, leading me to believe that I should never have sold my FT-270R to begin with. I placed a TM-271 (adjusted for 2 watts) on the transmit side. An FT-60R was still acting as a receiver. No problems. When I replaced the FT-60R with my TM-281 and configured the 271 to output DCS 612 and keyed the repeater, the system went in a loop. Changing DCS to another code didn't help. Changed to 127.3 hz and the system acted normally. Curious. Though Repeaterbook shows D612, use carrier squelch to receive the repeater for now.

UPDATE: Removed the ground to the TM-271 (transmit side) and that resolved the problem. The controller is a Reed Electronics u-Controller that is designed to be used with HTs. I ordered an ID-O-Matic III. If there is no loop problem with that controller with the Kenwood units, I'll use the u-Controller and the FT-277Rs for the 70 cm repeater.

I am also keying another repeater. The two other repeaters on 145.23/144.63 are K0LAV (Gem Lake 94.8) or Maple Lake (W0EQO 114.8). CW ID indicates it is KA0JQO/R.

UPDATE: Apparently there was a cross band operation on another repeater and KA0JQO/R was linked.  It was a problem with another repeater and is now resolved.

A few points:
1. The MRC Coordination Manual states on page 10 that "144.630 Mhz input and 145.230 Mhz output will be coordinated in the State of Minnesota for use by repeater stations on a shared basis (Shared Non-Protected). No geographical separation from other repeater stations in Minnesota using the same frequency will be done. All stations using this pair must use CTCSS, digital CTCSS or DTMF access [emphasis added]. The tone to be used for protecting the repeater input must be given to the Repeater Frequency Coordinator".
2. I was trying to find out source of the problem. A carrier-squelched repeater on an SNP frequency can cause all repeater operators a headache . IOW, I was doing the right thing.

Repeaters are everywhere.

It's amazing how many repeaters there are in the Metro area. It would be impossible, given the number of amateurs in the area, to have then all active.There are a few that are: 145.450, 444.100, 146.760, 444.650 come to mind, as these repeaters are either echolink nodes or are part of the Handiham network. That's about it. You may wonder if having all these repeaters that no one uses is a waste of spectrum. That may be one way of looking at it.

Now, consider this: if part of the Metro is hit with some sort of event (weather, lost puppy, nuclear attack) there will be enough sites still operational because of geographic dispersal and the independent nature of amateur radio operations. If part of the metro loses commercial power, sites in areas not affected will have commercial power, and those sites with an emergency power source in the affected area will continue to operate. The diversity of spectrum and cross banding will ensure that at least some communication will be possible. If there is no commercial power, there will be repeaters with emergency power to maintain operations, to wit:

(Location, Output frequency, Input tone)
Ramsey 53.550 114.8
Minneapolis 145.370 107.2
Ramsey 145.370 118.8
Richfield 145.390 103.5
Edina 145.430 127.3
Minnetonka 145.450
Blain 146.670 114.8
Minneapolis 146.700 127.3
Plymouth 146.700 127.3
St. Louis Park 146.760
Golden Valley 146.820 127.3
Inver Grove 146.985
Bloomington 147.090
Maplewood 147.120
Minneapolis 147.150 100.0
Carver 147.165 107.2
Burnsville 147.210 100.0
Hampton 147.360 136.5
Mounds View 224.940 100.0
Anoka 442.525 DSTAR
West St. Paul 442.550 100.0
St. Paul 443.100 114.8
Lino Lakes 443.200 151.4
New Brighton 443.425 114.8
White Bear Lake 444.000 DSTAR
Golden Valley 444.175 127.3
Edina 444.200 127.3
Burnsville 444.300 114.8
Richfield 444.475 118.8
Plymouth 444.500 127.3
Columbia Hts. 444.550 114.8
Cologne 444.600
Robbinsdale 444.775 114.8
Maplewood 444.825 114.8
Columbus 444.975 94.8
Ramsey 444.975 114.8

Source: Minnesota Repeater Council